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The Tat (twin arginine translocation) protein transport system functions to export folded protein substrates across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and to insert certain integral membrane proteins into that membrane. It is entirely distinct from the Sec pathway. Here, we describe our current knowledge of the molecular features of the Tat transport system. In addition, we discuss the roles that the Tat pathway plays in the bacterial cell, paying particular attention to the involvement of the Tat pathway in the biogenesis of cofactor-containing proteins, in cell wall biosynthesis and in bacterial pathogenicity.


Journal article


Adv Microb Physiol

Publication Date





187 - 254


Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteria, Escherichia coli Proteins, Membrane Transport Proteins, Molecular Sequence Data, Protein Folding, Protein Transport