Non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack in Asians and non-Asians: A post-hoc analysis of the PERFORM study
Hoshino T., Sissani L., Labreuche J., Bousser MG., Chamorro A., Fisher M., Ford I., Fox KM., Hennerici MG., Mattle HP., Rothwell PM., Gabriel Steg P., Vicaut E., Amarenco P.
© European Stroke Organisation 2018. Introduction: We aimed to compare the characteristics and vascular outcomes between Asian and non-Asian patients with non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack receiving antiplatelet monotherapy and to identify population-specific predictors for recurrent events. Patients and methods: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from the PERFORM study, in which 19,100 patients (mean age, 67.2 years; male, 63%; 2178 Asian and 16,922 non-Asian patients) with non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack were randomised to aspirin or terutroban and followed for two years. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death). Results: There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events risk between Asian and non-Asian populations (11.1% vs. 10.5%; p = 0.39). However, Asian patients were at significantly higher risk of intracranial haemorrhage (2.4% vs. 1.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–2.60; p < 0.001) and major bleeding (5.4% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04–1.61; p = 0.02). Stroke risk was significantly higher in Asian than in non-Asian populations among patients with lacunar stroke (7.4% vs. 4.5%; p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis, diastolic blood pressure (HR per 5 mm Hg 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.16; p = 0.03) and diabetes (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.22–1.52; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events for Asian and non-Asian patients, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with non-Asian patients, Asian patients had significantly higher risk of haemorrhagic events when given antiplatelet monotherapy for secondary prevention after non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack. Lacunar stroke and elevated diastolic blood pressure were more associated with recurrence risk in Asian patients.