Mating-type control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: isolation and characterization of mutants defective in repression by a1-alpha 2.
Harashima S., Miller AM., Tanaka K., Kusumoto K., Tanaka K., Mukai Y., Nasmyth K., Oshima Y.
The alpha 2 protein, the product of the MAT alpha 2 cistron, represses various genes specific to the a mating type (alpha 2 repression), and when combined with the MATa1 gene product, it represses MAT alpha 1 and various haploid-specific genes (a1-alpha 2 repression). One target of a1-alpha 2 repression is RME1, which is a negative regulator of a/alpha-specific genes. We have isolated 13 recessive mutants whose a1-alpha 2 repression is defective but which retain alpha 2 repression in a genetic background of ho MATa HML alpha HMRa sir3 or ho MAT alpha HMRa HMRa sir3. These mutations can be divided into three different classes. One class contains a missense mutation, designated hml alpha 2-102, in the alpha 2 cistron of HML, and another class contains two mat alpha 2-202, in the MAT alpha locus. These three mutants each have an amino acid substitution of tyrosine or acid substitution of tyrosine or phenylalanine for cysteine at the 33rd codon from the translation initiation codon in the alpha 2 cistron of HML alpha or MAT alpha. The remaining 10 mutants make up the third class and form a single complementation group, having mutations designated aar1 (a1-alpha 2 repression), at a gene other than MAT, HML, HMR, RME1, or the four SIR genes. Although a diploid cell homozygous for the aarl and sir3 mutations and for the MATa, HML alpha, and HMRa alleles showed alpha mating type, it could sporulate and gave rise to asci containing four alpha mating-type spores. These facts indicate that the domain for alpha2 repression is separable from that for a1-alpha2 protein interaction or complex formation in the alpha2 protein and that an additional regulation gene, AAR1, is associated with the a1-alpha2 repression of the alpha1 cistron and haploid-specific genes.