Sleep-related functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, patients with insomnia, and subjects without sleep problems.
Harvey AG., Schmidt DA., Scarnà A., Semler CN., Goodwin GM.
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated sleep-related functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (N=20), patients with insomnia (N=20), and subjects with good sleep (N=20) were compared on data from interviews and questionnaires and on findings from eight consecutive days and nights of sleep diary keeping (subjective sleep estimate) and actigraphy (objective sleep estimate). RESULTS: Seventy percent of the euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibited a clinically significant sleep disturbance. Compared with the other groups, the bipolar disorder group exhibited impaired sleep efficiency, higher levels of anxiety and fear about poor sleep, lower daytime activity levels, and a tendency to misperceive sleep. The bipolar disorder group held a level of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep that was comparable to that in the insomnia group and significantly higher than that in the good sleeper group. CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia is a significant problem among euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Components of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia, especially stimulus control and cognitive therapy, may be a helpful adjunct to treatment for patients with bipolar disorder.