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This Review summarizes advances in fluorination by C(sp2 )-H and C(sp3 )-H activation. Transition-metal-catalyzed approaches championed by palladium have allowed the installation of a fluorine substituent at C(sp2 ) and C(sp3 ) sites, exploiting the reactivity of high-oxidation-state transition-metal fluoride complexes combined with the use of directing groups (some transient) to control site and stereoselectivity. The large majority of known methods employ electrophilic fluorination reagents, but methods combining a nucleophilic fluoride source with an oxidant have appeared. External ligands have proven to be effective for C(sp3 )-H fluorination directed by weakly coordinating auxiliaries, thereby enabling control over reactivity. Methods relying on the formation of radical intermediates are complementary to transition-metal-catalyzed processes as they allow for undirected C(sp3 )-H fluorination. To date, radical C-H fluorinations mainly employ electrophilic N-F fluorination reagents but a unique MnIII -catalyzed oxidative C-H fluorination using fluoride has been developed. Overall, the field of late-stage nucleophilic C-H fluorination has progressed much more slowly, a state of play explaining why C-H 18 F-fluorination is still in its infancy.

Original publication




Journal article


Angew Chem Int Ed Engl

Publication Date





14824 - 14848


C−H activation, fluorination, radical chemistry, radiochemistry, transition-metal catalysis