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Th cell functional subsets have unique transcriptional programs that form the molecular basis for T cell differentiation and functions. T follicular helper (TFH) cells have emerged as the main providers of T cell help to B cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction, where B cells undergo selection events through competition for Ag and for access to GC T cell-mediated prosurvival and differentiation signals. Because T cell help is one limiting factor for GC B cells, the molecular mechanisms controlling TFH cell abundance and functionality are central to the GC reaction and generation of long-term humoral immunity. Two signaling pathways are absolutely critical for TFH cells: phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway and the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein. In this review, the molecular mechanisms constituting the signaling network in TFH cells will be explored.

Original publication




Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





6563 - 6568


Animals, Germinal Center, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer