Macrophage secretory phospholipase A2 group X enhances anti-inflammatory responses, promotes lipid accumulation, and contributes to aberrant lung pathology.
Curfs DMJ., Ghesquiere SAI., Vergouwe MN., van der Made I., Gijbels MJJ., Greaves DR., Verbeek JS., Hofker MH., de Winther MPJ.
Secreted phospholipase A2 group X (sPLA(2)-X) is one of the most potent enzymes of the phospholipase A(2) lipolytic enzyme superfamily. Its high catalytic activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid of cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), has implicated sPLA(2)-X in chronic inflammatory conditions such as atherogenesis. We studied the role of sPLA(2)-X enzyme activity in vitro and in vivo, by generating sPLA(2)-X-overexpressing macrophages and transgenic macrophage-specific sPLA(2)-X mice. Our results show that sPLA(2)-X expression inhibits macrophage activation and inflammatory responses upon stimulation, characterized by reduced cell adhesion and nitric oxide production, a decrease in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and an increase in interleukin (IL)-10. These effects were mediated by an increase in IL-6, and enhanced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)). Moreover, we found that overexpression of active sPLA(2)-X in macrophages strongly increases foam cell formation upon incubation with native LDL but also oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which is mediated by enhanced expression of scavenger receptor CD36. Transgenic sPLA(2)-X mice died neonatally because of severe lung pathology characterized by interstitial pneumonia with massive granulocyte and surfactant-laden macrophage infiltration. We conclude that overexpression of the active sPLA(2)-X enzyme results in enhanced foam cell formation but reduced activation and inflammatory responses in macrophages in vitro. Interestingly, enhanced sPLA(2)-X activity in macrophages in vivo leads to fatal pulmonary defects, suggesting a crucial role for sPLA(2)-X in inflammatory lung disease.