CD28 as a molecular amplifier extending TCR ligation and signaling capabilities.
Michel F., Attal-Bonnefoy G., Mangino G., Mise-Omata S., Acuto O.
Evidence has gathered that CD28 costimulation facilitates T cell activation by potentiating TCR intrinsic-signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that, by enhancing T cell/APC close contacts, CD28 facilitates TCR signal transduction. Moreover, the signal supplied by CD28 does not lead to increased Zap-70 and Lat phosphorylation, but amplifies PLCgamma1 activation and Ca(2+) response. We provide evidence that the PTK Itk controls the latter function. Our data suggest that CD28 binding to B7 contributes to setting the level of TCR-induced phosphorylated Lat for recruiting signaling complexes, whereas the CD28 signal boosts multiple pathways by facilitating PLCgamma1 activation. These results should provide a conceptual framework for understanding quantitative and qualitative aspects of CD28-mediated costimulation.