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The structure of social relationships among post-puberty gelada (Theropithecus gelada) females are analysed to determine what factors influence the way in which females distribute their social time among their potential interactees. Females suffer from constraints on the amount of social time they have available, and are forced to become increasingly selective in their choice of interactees as unit size increases. They seldom interact with individuals who are not their immediate matrilineal relatives. Within these relationships, there is little to distinguish qualitatively between relationships that involve frequent interaction and those that are more rarely serviced, suggesting that females are aware of who their immediate relatives are even if they only rarely interact with them because of the limited time they have available. These findings are interpreted in the light of the functional significance of coalitions in terms of a female's reproductive output. © 1983.

Original publication




Journal article


Animal Behaviour

Publication Date





556 - 564