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Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is ubiquitous in cells and at the centre of developmental programmes and environmental responses. Its chemistry in cells makes H2 O2 notoriously hard to detect dynamically, specifically and at high resolution. Genetically encoded sensors overcome persistent shortcomings, but pH sensitivity, silencing of expression and a limited concept of sensor behaviour in vivo have hampered meaningful H2 O2 sensing in living plants. We establish H2 O2 monitoring in the cytosol and the mitochondria of Arabidopsis with the fusion protein roGFP2-Orp1 using confocal microscopy and multiwell fluorimetry. We confirm sensor oxidation by H2 O2 , show insensitivity to physiological pH changes, and demonstrate that glutathione dominates sensor reduction in vivo. We show the responsiveness of the sensor to exogenous H2 O2 , pharmacologically-induced H2 O2 release, and genetic interference with the antioxidant machinery in living Arabidopsis tissues. Monitoring intracellular H2 O2 dynamics in response to elicitor exposure reveals late and prolonged impact of the oxidative burst in the cytosol, which is modified in redox mutants. We provide a well-defined toolkit for H2 O2 monitoring in planta and show that intracellular H2 O2 measurements only carry meaning in the context of the endogenous thiol redox systems. This opens new possibilities to dissect plant H2 O2 dynamics and redox regulation, including intracellular NADPH-oxidase-mediated ROS signalling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


New Phytol

Publication Date



H2O2, NADPH oxidase, cytosol, flg22, fluorescent protein sensors, glutathione, in vivo imaging, mitochondria