Characterization of genes encoding translation initiation factor eIF-2gamma in mouse and human: sex chromosome localization, escape from X-inactivation and evolution.
Ehrmann IE., Ellis PS., Mazeyrat S., Duthie S., Brockdorff N., Mattei MG., Gavin MA., Affara NA., Brown GM., Simpson E., Mitchell MJ., Scott DM.
The Delta Sxrb interval of the mouse Y chromosome is critical for spermatogenesis and expression of the male-specific minor transplantation antigen H-Y. Several genes have been mapped to this interval and each has a homologue on the X chromosome. Four, Zfy1 , Zfy2 , Ube1y and Dffry , are expressed specifically in the testis and their X homologues are not transcribed from the inactive X chromosome. A further two, Smcy and Uty , are ubiquitously expressed and their X homologues escape X-inactivation. Here we report the identification of another gene from this region of the mouse Y chromosome. It encodes the highly conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-2gamma. In the mouse this gene is ubiquitously expressed, has an X chromosome homologue which maps close to Dmd and escapes X-inactivation. The coding regions of the X and Y genes show 86% nucleotide identity and encode putative products with 98% amino acid identity. In humans, the eIF-2gamma structural gene is located on the X chromosome at Xp21 and this also escapes X-inactivation. However, there is no evidence of a Y copy of this gene in humans. We have identified autosomal retroposons of eIF-2gamma in both humans and mice and an additional retroposon on the X chromosome in some mouse strains. Ark blot analysis of eutherian and metatherian genomic DNA indicates that X-Y homologues are present in all species tested except simian primates and kangaroo and that retroposons are common to a wide range of mammals. These results shed light on the evolution of X-Y homologous genes.