Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Butterfly transects were conducted on eight pairs of organic and conventional farms in the UK in 1994, and ten pairs of farms in 1995. Each transect included areas of conventional and organic farmland. All species seen, and the abundance of each species, were recorded separately for the uncropped field boundary and the crop edge. In both years, significantly more non-pest butterflies were recorded on organic than on conventional farmland, and more non-pest butterflies were recorded over the uncropped boundary habitat, than over the crop edge habitat in both systems. By contrast, there was no significant difference in either year in the abundance of two pest species, Pieris brassicae (the large white) and Pieris rapae (the small white) between the two systems. Implications of the results for the conservation of butterflies within agricultural systems are discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Publication Date





133 - 139