Favorable effect on acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease with cyclophosphamide and in vivo anti-CD52 monoclonal antibodies for marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors for acquired aplastic anemia.
Gupta V., Ball SE., Yi QL., Sage D., McCann SR., Lawler M., Ortin M., Freires M., Hale G., Waldmann H., Gordon-Smith EC., Marsh JC.
Between August 1989 and November 2003, 33 patients at our center with acquired aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-identical sibling donors with cyclophosphamide and in vivo anti-CD52 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) for conditioning. The median age at BMT was 17 years (range, 4-46 years). Before BMT, 58% were heavily transfused (>50 transfusions), and 42% had previously experienced treatment failure with antithymocyte globulin-based immunosuppressive therapy. Unmanipulated bone marrow was used as the source of stem cells in all patients except 1. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was with cyclosporine alone in 19 (58%) patients; 14 received anti-CD52 MoAb in addition to cyclosporine. The conditioning regimen was well tolerated without significant acute toxicity. Graft failure was seen in 8 patients (primary, n = 4; secondary, n = 4). Of those whose grafts failed, 4 survived long-term (complete autologous recovery, n = 2; rescue with previously stored marrow, n = 1; second allograft, n = 1). The cumulative incidence of graft failure and grade II to IV acute and chronic GVHD was 24%, 14%, and 4%, respectively. None developed extensive chronic GVHD. With a median follow-up of 59 months, the 5-year survival was 81% (95% confidence interval, 68%-96%). No unexpected early or late infectious or noninfectious complications were observed. We conclude that the conditioning regimen containing cyclophosphamide and anti-CD52 MoAb is well tolerated and effective for acquired aplastic anemia with HLA-matched sibling donors. The favorable effect on the incidence and severity of GVHD is noteworthy in this study and warrants further investigation.