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Activation of procaspase-9, a key component of the apoptosis mechanism, requires the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain (CARD) with the CARD in the adaptor protein Apaf-1. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutagenesis we have determined the structure of the CARD from Apaf-1 and the residues important for binding the CARD in procaspase-9. Apaf-1's CARD contains seven short alpha-helices with the core six helices arranged in an antiparallel manner. Residues in helix 2 have a central role in mediating interaction with procaspase-9 CARD. This interaction surface is distinct from that proposed based on the structure of the CARD from RAIDD, but is coincident with that of the structurally similar FADD death effector domain and the Apaf-1 CARD interface identified by crystallographic studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Cell Death Differ

Publication Date





1125 - 1132


Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Amino Acid Sequence, Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1, Binding Sites, Carrier Proteins, Caspase 9, Caspases, Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein, Humans, Models, Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Protein Conformation, Proteins, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Solutions