Hydrogen Bond Length as a Key To Understanding Sweetness.
Bruni F., Di Mino C., Imberti S., McLain SE., Rhys NH., Ricci MA.
Neutron diffraction experiments have been performed to investigate and compare the structure of the hydration shell of three monosaccharides, namely, fructose, glucose, and mannose. It is found that despite their differences with respect to many thermodynamical quantities, bioprotective properties against environmental stresses, and taste, the influence of these monosaccharides on the bulk water solvent structure is virtually identical. Conversely, these sugars interact with the neighboring water molecules by forming H bonds of different length and strength. Interestingly, the sweetness of these monosaccharides, along with that of the disaccharide trehalose, is correlated with the length of these H bonds. This suggests that the small differences in stereochemistry between the different sugars determine a relevant change in polarity, which has a fundamental impact on the behavior of these molecules in vivo.