RNA Helicase DDX1 Converts RNA G-Quadruplex Structures into R-Loops to Promote IgH Class Switch Recombination.
Ribeiro de Almeida C., Dhir S., Dhir A., Moghaddam AE., Sattentau Q., Meinhart A., Proudfoot NJ.
Class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus is associated with the formation of R-loop structures over switch (S) regions. While these often occur co-transcriptionally between nascent RNA and template DNA, we now show that they also form as part of a post-transcriptional mechanism targeting AID to IgH S-regions. This depends on the RNA helicase DDX1 that is also required for CSR in vivo. DDX1 binds to G-quadruplex (G4) structures present in intronic switch transcripts and converts them into S-region R-loops. This in turn targets the cytidine deaminase enzyme AID to S-regions so promoting CSR. Notably R-loop levels over S-regions are diminished by chemical stabilization of G4 RNA or by the expression of a DDX1 ATPase-deficient mutant that acts as a dominant-negative protein to reduce CSR efficiency. In effect, we provide evidence for how S-region transcripts interconvert between G4 and R-loop structures to promote CSR in the IgH locus.