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The derivation of cross-correlation functions from single-channel dwell (open and closed) times is described. Simulation of single-channel data for simple gating models, alongside theoretical treatment, is used to demonstrate the relationship of cross-correlation functions to underlying gating mechanisms. It is shown that time irreversibility of gating kinetics may be revealed in cross-correlation functions. Application of cross-correlation function analysis to data derived from the locust muscle glutamate receptor-channel provides evidence for multiple gateway states and time reversibility of gating. A model for the gating of this channel is used to show the effect of omission of brief channel events on cross-correlation functions.

Original publication




Journal article


Biophys J

Publication Date





309 - 320


Ion Channels, Kinetics, Mathematics, Models, Theoretical, Time Factors