ATP sensing in living plant cells reveals tissue gradients and stress dynamics of energy physiology.
De Col V., Fuchs P., Nietzel T., Elsässer M., Voon CP., Candeo A., Seeliger I., Fricker MD., Grefen C., Møller IM., Bassi A., Lim BL., Zancani M., Meyer AJ., Costa A., Wagner S., Schwarzländer M.
Growth and development of plants is ultimately driven by light energy captured through photosynthesis. ATP acts as universal cellular energy cofactor fuelling all life processes, including gene expression, metabolism, and transport. Despite a mechanistic understanding of ATP biochemistry, ATP dynamics in the living plant have been largely elusive. Here, we establish MgATP(2-) measurement in living plants using the fluorescent protein biosensor ATeam1.03-nD/nA. We generate Arabidopsis sensor lines and investigate the sensor in vitro under conditions appropriate for the plant cytosol. We establish an assay for ATP fluxes in isolated mitochondria, and demonstrate that the sensor responds rapidly and reliably to MgATP(2-) changes in planta. A MgATP(2-) map of the Arabidopsis seedling highlights different MgATP(2-) concentrations between tissues and within individual cell types, such as root hairs. Progression of hypoxia reveals substantial plasticity of ATP homeostasis in seedlings, demonstrating that ATP dynamics can be monitored in the living plant.