Longitudinal analysis of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in CNS inflammatory diseases.
Hyun J-W., Woodhall MR., Kim S-H., Jeong IH., Kong B., Kim G., Kim Y., Park MS., Irani SR., Waters P., Kim HJ.
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the seroprevalence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G1 (MOG-IgG) and associated clinical features of patients from a large adult-dominant unselected cohort with mainly relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. We also investigate the clinical relevance of MOG-IgG through a longitudinal analysis of serological status over a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: Serum samples from 505 patients with CNS inflammatory diseases at the National Cancer Center were analysed using cell-based assays for MOG-IgG and aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG). MOG-IgG serostatus was longitudinally assessed in seropositive patients with available serum samples and at least 2 years follow-up. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 505 (4.4%) patients with CNS inflammatory diseases were positive for MOG-IgG. Patients with MOG-IgG had neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD, n=10), idiopathic AQP4-IgG-negative myelitis (n=4), idiopathic AQP4-IgG-negative optic neuritis (n=4), other demyelinating syndromes (n=3) and multiple sclerosis (n=1). No relapses were seen in patients when they became MOG-IgG seronegative, whereas a persistent positive serological status was observed in patients with clinical relapses despite immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a large adult-predominant unselected cohort of mainly relapsing CNS inflammatory diseases, we confirmed that NMOSD phenotype was most commonly observed in patients with MOG-IgG. A longitudinal analysis with 2-year follow-up suggested that persistence of MOG-IgG is associated with relapses.