The nuclear matrix protein CIZ1 facilitates localization of Xist RNA to the inactive X-chromosome territory.
Ridings-Figueroa R., Stewart ER., Nesterova TB., Coker H., Pintacuda G., Godwin J., Wilson R., Haslam A., Lilley F., Ruigrok R., Bageghni SA., Albadrani G., Mansfield W., Roulson J-A., Brockdorff N., Ainscough JFX., Coverley D.
The nuclear matrix protein Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) promotes DNA replication in association with cyclins and has been linked to adult and pediatric cancers. Here we show that CIZ1 is highly enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in mouse and human female cells and is retained by interaction with the RNA-dependent nuclear matrix. CIZ1 is recruited to Xi in response to expression of X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) RNA during the earliest stages of X inactivation in embryonic stem cells and is dependent on the C-terminal nuclear matrix anchor domain of CIZ1 and the E repeats of Xist CIZ1-null mice, although viable, display fully penetrant female-specific lymphoproliferative disorder. Interestingly, in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells derived from CIZ1-null embryos, Xist RNA localization is disrupted, being highly dispersed through the nucleoplasm rather than focal. Focal localization is reinstated following re-expression of CIZ1. Focal localization of Xist RNA is also disrupted in activated B and T cells isolated from CIZ1-null animals, suggesting a possible explanation for female-specific lymphoproliferative disorder. Together, these findings suggest that CIZ1 has an essential role in anchoring Xist to the nuclear matrix in specific somatic lineages.