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The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2% of the Scandinavian population) and a rapid disease course. His HIV V3 region contained genotypic features attributable to X4 virus and resembled functionally verified X4 virus and virus from patients treated with a CD4 cell-stimulating drug, tucaresol. Age-related differences in disease progression rate and survival time were seen for CCR5/CCR5 patients. Surprisingly, no protective effect of the CCR5/CCR5Delta32 genotype on disease progression or survival was seen for children but was evident for adults. Age group-related immunologic differences might explain this variation, and transmission route and/or viral phenotype variation within donor virus may be related to the limited protection of the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype. Sequence comparisons indicate that X4 virus can be selected in vivo due to either absence of CCR5 receptors or relative increase of CXCR4 receptors.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





215 - 225


Adolescent, Adult, Aging, Amino Acid Sequence, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Cohort Studies, Cytomegalovirus Infections, Disease Progression, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotype, HIV, HIV Infections, Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Molecular Sequence Data, Receptors, CCR5, Risk Factors, Survival Rate