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BACKGROUND: Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cADPR), a naturally occurring metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), mobilizes Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial stores in a variety of mammalian and invertebrate tissues. It has been shown that cADPR activates ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-release channels, working independently of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores. In some systems, cADPR has been shown to be more potent than IP3. The chemo-enzymatic synthesis of structurally modified analogues of cADPR can provide pharmacological tools for probing this new Ca(2+)-signaling pathway. In this work, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a structural mimic of cADPR with different Ca(2+)-releasing properties. RESULTS: 7-Deaza cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (7-deaza cADPR), a novel cADPR analogue modified in the purine ring, was synthesized and its ability to release Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial pools in homogenates made from sea urchin eggs was investigated. 7-Deaza cADPR was more effective in releasing Ca2+ than cADPR, but it only released approximately 66% of the Ca2+ released by a maximal concentration of cADPR. It was also more resistant to hydrolysis than cADPR. If we administered increasing concentrations of 7-deaza cADPR at the same time as a maximal concentration of cADPR, the induction of Ca2+ release by cADPR was antagonized. CONCLUSIONS: 7-Deaza cADPR has a Ca(2+)-release profile consistent with that of a partial agonist, and it is the first reported example of such a compound to act at the cADPR receptor. The imidazole ring of cADPR is clearly important in stimulating the Ca(2+)-release machinery, and the present results demonstrate that structural modification of a site other than position 8 of the purine ring can affect the efficacy of Ca2+ release. 7-Deaza cADPR represents a significant step forwards in designing modulators of the cADPR signaling pathway.

Original publication




Journal article


Chem Biol

Publication Date





51 - 61


Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose, Animals, Calcium, Cyclic ADP-Ribose, GTP-Binding Proteins, Indicators and Reagents, Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate, Kinetics, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Models, Biological, Molecular Structure, Oocytes, Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate, Sea Urchins, Second Messenger Systems, Structure-Activity Relationship, Tritium