Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: HLA haplotypes DRB1*03_DQB1*02 and DRB1*04_DQB1*0302, and allelic variation of the T cell regulatory gene cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and of the T cell activation gene protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid) (PTPN22) have been associated with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. Using thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAbs) as an indicator of thyroid autoimmunity, we assessed whether the association of these loci is different in type 1 diabetes patients with TPOAbs than in those without. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TPOAbs were measured in 4,364 type 1 diabetic patients from across Great Britain, 67% of whom were aged under 18 years. These patients and 6,866 geographically matched control subjects were genotyped at CTLA4, PTPN22, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1. RESULTS: TPOAbs were detected in 462 (10.6%) of the type 1 diabetic patients. These patients had a stronger association with CTLA4 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49 for the G allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3087243; 95% CI = 1.29-1.72) than did the TPOAbs-negative patients (p = 0.0004; OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.10-1.24) or type 1 diabetes patients overall (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.27). The ratio of women:men was higher (1.94:1) in this subgroup than in type 1 diabetes patients without TPOAbs (0.94:1; p = 1.86 x 10(-15)). TPOAbs status did not correlate with age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes or with PTPN22 (Arg620Trp; rs2476601). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results identify a subgroup of type 1 diabetic patients that is sensitive to allelic variation of the negative regulatory molecule CTLA-4 and indicate that TPOAbs testing could be used to subclassify type 1 diabetes patients for inclusion in genetic, biological or clinical studies.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





741 - 746


Adolescent, Age of Onset, Alleles, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, Autoantigens, Autoimmunity, CTLA-4 Antigen, Child, Child, Preschool, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Female, Genetic Variation, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Iodide Peroxidase, Iron-Binding Proteins, Male, Odds Ratio, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Sex Factors