Genetic analysis of type 1 diabetes using whole genome approaches.
Whole genome linkage analysis of type 1 diabetes using affected sib pair families and semi-automated genotyping and data capture procedures has shown how type 1 diabetes is inherited. A major proportion of clustering of the disease in families can be accounted for by sharing of alleles at susceptibility loci in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (IDDM1) and at a minimum of 11 other loci on nine chromosomes. Primary etiological components of IDDM1, the HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 class II immune response genes, and of IDDM2, the minisatellite repeat sequence in the 5' regulatory region of the insulin gene on chromosome 11p15, have been identified. Identification of the other loci will involve linkage disequilibrium mapping and sequencing of candidate genes in regions of linkage.