PARP, transcription and chromatin modeling.
Posavec Marjanović M., Crawford K., Ahel I.
Compaction mode of chromatin and chromatin highly organised structures regulate gene expression. Posttranslational modifications, histone variants and chromatin remodelers modulate the compaction, structure and therefore function of specific regions of chromatin. The generation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is emerging as one of the key signalling events on sites undergoing chromatin structure modulation. PAR is generated locally in response to stresses. These include genotoxic stress but also differentiation signals, metabolic and hormonal cues. A pictures emerges in which transient PAR formation is essential to orchestrate chromatin remodelling and transcription factors allowing the cell to adapt to alteration in its environment. This review summarizes the diverse factors of ADP-ribosylation in the adaptive regulation of chromatin structure and transcription.