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STUDY OBJECTIVES: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. RESULTS: From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P < 0.05). Preliminary work suggested three clusters by retaining the I-NSD and splitting the I-SSD cluster into two: I-SSD A (n = 29): defined by high WASO and I-SSD B (n = 14): a second I-SSD cluster with high SOL and medium WASO. The I-SSD B cluster performed worse than I-SSD A and I-NSD for sustained attention (P ≤ 0.05). In an exploratory analysis, q-EEG revealed reduced spectral power also in I-SSD B before (Delta, Alpha, Beta-1) and after sleep-onset (Beta-2) compared to I-SSD A and I-NSD (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Two insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q-EEG. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742.

Original publication

DOI

10.5665/sleep.6230

Type

Journal article

Journal

Sleep

Publication Date

01/11/2016

Volume

39

Pages

1993 - 2004

Keywords

Insomnia Disorder, and phenotyping, cluster analysis, polysomnography, sleep