Mechanisms of protein import and routing in chloroplasts.
Jarvis P., Robinson C.
The vast majority of the approximately 3000 different proteins required to build a fully functional chloroplast are encoded by the nuclear genome and translated on cytosolic ribosomes. As chloroplasts are each surrounded by a double-membrane system, or envelope, sophisticated mechanisms are necessary to mediate the import of these nucleus-encoded proteins into chloroplasts. Once inside the organelle, many chloroplast proteins engage one of four additional protein sorting mechanisms that direct targeting to the internal thylakoid membrane system.