Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders in small cell lung carcinoma: A prospective study.
Gozzard P., Woodhall M., Chapman C., Nibber A., Waters P., Vincent A., Lang B., Maddison P.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and range of paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PNDs) and neuronal antibodies in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). METHODS: Two hundred sixty-four consecutive patients with biopsy-proven SCLC were recruited at the time of tumor diagnosis. All patients underwent full neurologic examination. Serum samples were taken prior to chemotherapy and analyzed for 15 neuronal antibodies. Thirty-eight healthy controls were analyzed in parallel. RESULTS: PNDs were quite prevalent (n = 24, 9.4%), most frequently Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (3.8%), sensory neuronopathy (1.9%), and limbic encephalitis (1.5%). Eighty-seven percent of all patients with PNDs had antibodies to SOX2 (62.5%), HuD (41.7%), or P/Q VGCC (50%), irrespective of their syndrome. Other neuronal antibodies were found at lower frequencies (GABAb receptor [12.5%] and N-type VGCC [20.8%]) or very rarely (GAD65, amphiphysin, Ri, CRMP5, Ma2, Yo, VGKC complex, CASPR2, LGI1, and NMDA receptor [all <5%]). CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of PNDs is broader and the frequency is higher than previously appreciated, and selected antibody tests (SOX2, HuD, VGCC) can help determine the presence of an SCLC.