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Antibody-mediated diseases of the central nervous system are a relatively new and challenging field in autoimmune neurologic disease and of major clinical importance in children and adults. The antibodies bind to cell-surface epitopes on neuronal or glial proteins, and the patients demonstrate either focal or more generalized clinical signs depending on the extent of brain regions targeted by the antibodies. The presence of seizures, movement disorders, autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders, alongside neuroimaging and electrophysiological features may indicate a specific antibody-mediated disorder. However, phenotypic variation may be observed in children with the same antibody. Regardless, many patients benefit from immunotherapy with substantial improvement.

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatr Clin North Am

Publication Date





667 - 685


AQP4, Antibody, Autoimmunity, Encephalitis, Immune-mediated, Immunotherapy, Limbic, MOG, N-methyl d-aspartate receptor, VGKC-complex, Adolescent, Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System, Child, Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Immunotherapy, Neuroimaging, Phenotype