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Monitoring the sensory consequences of articulatory movements supports speaking. For example, delaying auditory feedback of a speaker's voice disrupts speech production. Also, there is evidence that this disruption may be decreased by immediate visual feedback, i.e., seeing one's own articulatory movements. It is, however, unknown whether delayed visual feedback affects speech production in fluent speakers. Here, the effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech fluency (i.e., speech rate and errors), vocal control (i.e., intensity and pitch), and speech rhythm were investigated. Participants received delayed (by 200 ms) or immediate auditory feedback, while repeating sentences. Moreover, they received either no visual feedback, immediate visual feedback, or delayed visual feedback (by 200, 400, and 600 ms). Delayed auditory feedback affected fluency, vocal control, and rhythm. Immediate visual feedback had no effect on any of the speech measures when it was combined with delayed auditory feedback. Delayed visual feedback did, however, affect speech fluency when it was combined with delayed auditory feedback. In sum, the findings show that delayed auditory feedback disrupts fluency, vocal control, and rhythm and that delayed visual feedback can strengthen the disruptive effect of delayed auditory feedback on fluency.

Original publication




Journal article


J Acoust Soc Am

Publication Date





873 - 883


Acoustic Stimulation, Adult, Feedback, Psychological, Female, Humans, Male, Periodicity, Photic Stimulation, Speech, Speech Perception, Speech Production Measurement, Time Factors, Visual Perception, Voice Quality, Young Adult