Oxylipins produced by the 9-lipoxygenase pathway in Arabidopsis regulate lateral root development and defense responses through a specific signaling cascade.
Vellosillo T., Martínez M., López MA., Vicente J., Cascón T., Dolan L., Hamberg M., Castresana C.
Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth with pure oxylipins resulted in root waving, loss of root apical dominance, and decreased root elongation. 9-Hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (9-HOT) was a potent inducer of root waving. Studies with noxy2 (for nonresponding to oxylipins2), a new 9-HOT-insensitive mutant, and coronatine insensitive1-1 (jasmonate-insensitive) revealed at least three signaling cascades mediating the oxylipin actions. Treatment with 9-HOT resulted in a reduction in lateral roots and an increase in stage V primordia. Roots showed strong 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX) activity, and root primordia expressed 9-LOX genes. These results, along with findings that noxy2 and mutants with defective 9-LOX activity showed increased numbers of lateral roots, suggest that 9-HOT, or a closely related 9-LOX product, is an endogenous modulator of lateral root formation. Histochemical and molecular analyses revealed that 9-HOT activated events common to development and defense responses. A subset of 9-HOT-responding root genes was also induced in leaves after 9-HOT treatment or pathogen inoculation. The results that noxy2 displayed altered root development, enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas, and reduced the activation of 9-HOT-responding genes are consistent with mechanistic links among these processes. The nature of the changes detected suggests that oxylipins from the 9-LOX pathway function in cell wall modifications required for lateral root development and pathogen arrest.