A RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor spatially regulates growth in root hair cells.
Carol RJ., Takeda S., Linstead P., Durrant MC., Kakesova H., Derbyshire P., Drea S., Zarsky V., Dolan L.
Root hairs are cellular protuberances extending from the root surface into the soil; there they provide access to immobile inorganic ions such as phosphate, which are essential for growth. Their cylindrical shape results from a polarized mechanism of cell expansion called tip growth in which elongation is restricted to a small area at the surface of the hair-forming cell (trichoblast) tip. Here we identify proteins that spatially control the sites at which cell growth occurs by isolating Arabidopsis mutants (scn1) that develop ectopic sites of growth on trichoblasts. We cloned SCN1 and showed that SCN1 is a RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that spatially restricts the sites of growth to a single point on the trichoblast. We showed previously that localized production of reactive oxygen species by RHD2/AtrbohC NADPH oxidase is required for hair growth; here we show that SCN1/AtrhoGDI1 is a component of the mechanism that focuses RHD2/AtrbohC-catalysed production of reactive oxygen species to hair tips during wild-type development. We propose that the spatial organization of growth in plant cells requires the local RhoGDI-regulated activation of the RHD2/AtrbohC NADPH oxidase.