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A substantial number of elegant experimental approaches have been developed to image the distribution and dynamics of DNA, mRNA, proteins, organelles, metabolites, and ions in living plant cells. Although the human brain can rapidly assimilate visual information, particularly when presented as animations and movies, it is much more challenging to condense the phenomenal amount of data present in three-, four-, or even five-dimensional images into statistically useful measurements. This review explores a range of in vivo fluorescence imaging applications in plants, with particular emphasis on where quantitative techniques are beginning to emerge.

Original publication




Journal article


Annu Rev Plant Biol

Publication Date





79 - 107


Gene Expression, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Organelles, Plant Proteins, Protein Binding