Diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions using an empirical mathematical model for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.
Fan X., Medved M., Karczmar GS., Yang C., Foxley S., Arkani S., Recant W., Zamora MA., Abe H., Newstead GM.
The purpose of this study was to test whether an empirical mathematical model (EMM) of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) can distinguish between benign and malignant breast lesions. A modified clinical protocol was used to improve the sampling of contrast medium uptake and washout. T(1)-weighted DCE magnetic resonance images were acquired at 1.5 T for 22 patients before and after injection of Gd-DTPA. Contrast medium concentration as a function of time was calculated over a small region of interest containing the most rapidly enhancing pixels. Then the curves were fitted with the EMM, which accurately described contrast agent uptake and washout. Results demonstrate that benign lesions had uptake (P<2.0 x 10(-5)) and washout (P<.01) rates of contrast agent significantly slower than those of malignant lesions. In addition, secondary diagnostic parameters, such as time to peak of enhancement, enhancement slope at the peak and curvature at the peak of enhancement, were derived mathematically from the EMM and expressed in terms of primary parameters. These diagnostic parameters also effectively differentiated benign from malignant lesions (P<.03). Conventional analysis of contrast medium dynamics, using a subjective classification of contrast medium kinetics in lesions as "washout," "plateau" or "persistent" (sensitivity=83%, specificity=50% and diagnostic accuracy=72%), was less effective than the EMM (sensitivity=100%, specificity=83% and diagnostic accuracy=94%) for the separation of benign and malignant lesions. In summary, the present research suggests that the EMM is a promising alternative method for evaluating DCE-MRI data with improved diagnostic accuracy.