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Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated improved anatomic and functional images produced from high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI of the water proton signal. The present work tests the hypothesis that different Fourier components of the water resonance represent anatomically and/or physiologically distinct populations of water molecules within each small image voxel. HiSS datasets were acquired from tomatoes and rodent tumors at 4.7 T using echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (spatial and spectral resolutions were 117-150 microm and 1.5-3.1 Hz, respectively). Images of each Fourier component of the water resonance (referred to as Fourier component images, or FCIs) were produced. FCIs at frequencies offset from the peak of the water resonance ('off-peak' FCIs) were compared to images of the Fourier component with largest amplitude, i.e. the water peak-height image. Results demonstrate that off-peak FCIs differ significantly from the water peak-height image and that water resonances are often asymmetric. These results show that water signal at various frequency offsets from the peak of the water resonance come from water molecules in different anatomic/physiologic environments. Off-peak FCIs are a new source of structural and functional information and may have clinical utility.

Original publication




Journal article


Phys Med Biol

Publication Date





4509 - 4522


Animals, Contrast Media, Echo-Planar Imaging, Fourier Analysis, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Lycopersicon esculentum, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Models, Statistical, Neoplasms, Protons, Rats, Spectrophotometry, Water