Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study.
Jansen SA., Fan X., Medved M., Abe H., Shimauchi A., Yang C., Zamora M., Foxley S., Olopade OI., Karczmar GS., Newstead GM.
Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T(1)-weighted DCE-MRI with ∼7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C(1 min)) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS.