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Exposure to adverse experiences in early life increases the risk of depression during adulthood. Recent findings have highlighted that exposure of a fetus to an adverse intrauterine environment may also have implications for later offspring depression. This review considers the status of the evidence for these associations and the potential mechanisms underlying prenatal developmental risks for later depression, addressing the challenging possibility that environmental predisposition to depression may begin before birth.

Original publication




Journal article


J Dev Orig Health Dis

Publication Date





339 - 350


Adolescent, Adult, Alcohol Drinking, Cannabis, Child, Depression, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Malnutrition, Maternal Health, Middle Aged, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Risk Factors, Stress, Psychological