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Although what drives the abundance and habitat selection of ungulates is a long-standing question, coherent datasets investigating the influences of rainfall, competition and fire on ungulates are unusual. Over 4 y we carried out extensive monthly road transects in Ithala Game Reserve, South Africa, to determine the demographics and habitat occupancy of the region's prevalent grazer (wildebeest) and mixed-feeder (impala). Habitat occupancy was determined using a GIS-based approach. We obtained 8742 sighting records, encompassing 8400 wildebeest and 10071 impala. Annual rainfall did not significantly correlate with population sizes of either species. Fecundity of wildebeest, but not of impala, showed a significant positive relationship with rainfall specifically over the perinatal period (November-December), whilst no significant relationships were found for either species between fecundity and rainfall over the previous year, 2 y, rut (February-April) or height of the dry season (June-August). Impala unexpectedly favoured browse habitats to grassland year round, probably consequent on competition for grass with wildebeest. Dry-season grass flushes attracted both wildebeest and impala. The study emphasized how rainfall, competition and fire regimes may affect differently grazers compared with mixed-feeders. © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Tropical Ecology

Publication Date





189 - 198