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OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for a faculty training program in nontechnical skill assessment in surgery. BACKGROUND: Nontechnical skills in the operating room are critical for patient safety. The successful integration of these skills into workplace-based assessment is dependent upon the availability of faculty who are able to teach and assess them. At present, no guidelines exist regarding the training requirements for such faculty in surgical contexts. METHODS: The development of the guidelines was carried out in several stages: stage 1-a detailed literature review on current training for nontechnical skill assessors; stage 2-semistructured interviews with a multidisciplinary panel (consisting of clinicians and psychologists/human factors specialists) of experts in surgical nontechnical skills; and stage 3-interview findings fed into an Expert Consensus Panel (ECP) Delphi approach to establish consensus regarding training requirements for faculty assessing nontechnical skills in surgery. RESULTS: The ECP agreed that training in nontechnical skill assessment should be delivered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of clinicians and psychologists/human factors specialists. The ECP reached consensus regarding who should be targeted to be trained as faculty (including proficiency and revalidation requirements). Consensus was reached on 7 essential training program content elements (including training in providing feedback/debriefing) and 8 essential methods of evaluating the effectiveness of a "train-the-trainers" program. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence-based guidelines that can be used to guide the development and evaluation of programs to educate faculty in the training and assessment of nontechnical skills. Uptake of these guidelines could accelerate the development of surgical expertise required for safe and high-quality patient care.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann Surg

Publication Date





370 - 375


Clinical Competence, Delphi Technique, Education, Medical, Continuing, Education, Medical, Graduate, Faculty, Medical, General Surgery, Humans, Interviews as Topic, Program Development, Program Evaluation, United Kingdom