Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Low numeracy skills have a negative impact on the employment prospects and mental and physical health of individuals, and on the economic status of countries. Clearly, this is a high priority area where efficient strategies for intervention can lead to a better outcome, especially when implemented at an early age. We discuss here present and future directions for intervention. The development of such interventions has been based on the study of numerical difficulties through methods ranging from standardized tests to behavioral measures to neuroimaging. The intervention techniques range from group-based interventions targeted at strengths and weaknesses in specific components of arithmetic, to educational computer-games, to non-invasive brain-stimulation. We discuss the principles behind each method, the current evidence, and future directions.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends in Neuroscience and Education




85 - 93


Roi Cohen Kadosh, Oxford University, Department of Experimental Psychology, 9 South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK, Ann Dowker, Oxford University, Department of Experimental Psychology, 9 South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK, Angela Heine, Freie Universitate Berlin, Department of Psychology, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, Berlin, 14195, Germany, Liane Kaufmann, General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy A, Hall, Tyrol, A-6060, Austria, Karin Kucian, University Children's Hospital Zurich,, Center for MR-Research, Steinwiesstrasse 75,, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland


Cognitive training, Developmental dyscalculia, Neuroimaging, Learning disabilities, Noninvasive brain stimulation, Numerical cognition