Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in regulation of chromatin structure and the DNA damage response.
Tallis M., Morra R., Barkauskaite E., Ahel I.
Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a post-translational modification of proteins and is synthesised by PAR polymerases (PARPs), which have long been associated with the coordination of the cellular response to DNA damage, amongst other processes. Binding of some PARPs such as PARP1 to broken DNA induces a substantial wave of PARylation, which results in significant re-structuring of the chromatin microenvironment through modification of chromatin-associated proteins and recruitment of chromatin-modifying proteins. Similarly, other DNA damage response proteins are recruited to the damaged sites via PAR-specific binding modules, and in this way, PAR mediates not only local chromatin architecture but also DNA repair. Here, we discuss the expanding role of PAR in the DNA damage response, with particular focus on chromatin regulation.