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The aim of the study was to investigate early executive functioning in young children from 6-35 months of age. The study involved 319 randomly selected children from the community, 17 HIV exposed but uninfected children and 31 HIV infected ARV-naive children. A variation of the A-not-B task was used. While there were no group differences in total correct, perseverative errors, nor maximum error run, a significant percentage of children were unable to complete the task as a consequence of the children becoming overtly distressed or refusing to continue. In a multivariate analysis we observed that the significant predictors of non-completion were HIV exposure (both infected and exposed) and being under 24 months of age. These patterns of results indicate that future work with a broader array of tasks need to look at the association of HIV and EF tasks and potential contribution of factors such as emotion regulation, persistence and motivation on performance on EF tasks.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Environ Res Public Health

Publication Date





4132 - 4142


Child, Preschool, Executive Function, Female, HIV, HIV Infections, Humans, Infant, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, Kenya, Maternal-Fetal Exchange, Neuropsychological Tests, Pregnancy, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects