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This review concentrates on the evidence for autoantibodies to cell surface synaptic proteins in psychosis and schizophrenia. We and others have recently found antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in first-episode psychosis. We describe the evidence for pathogenicity and disease-relevance of these antibodies, which builds on the novel field in neuroimmunology of cell surface antibody-associated central nervous system disorders. Relevant autoantibodies in psychosis and schizophrenia are likely to be those directed to cell surface proteins, in which the likelihood of pathogenicity is greater. We discuss the evidence for this from the field of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes and the discovery of novel cell surface antigen central nervous system autoimmune syndromes.

Original publication




Journal article


Biol Psychiatry

Publication Date





284 - 291


Autoantibody, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), encephalitis, encephalopathy, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (Lgi1), paraneoplastic, psychosis, schizophrenia, voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC), Animals, Autoantibodies, Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System, Brain Diseases, Humans, Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Psychotic Disorders, Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, Schizophrenia, Synapses