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The plant apoplast during plant-pathogen interactions is an ancient battleground that holds an intriguing range of attacking enzymes and counteracting inhibitors. Examples are pathogen xylanases and polygalacturonases that are inhibited by plant proteins like TAXI, XIP, and PGIP; and plant glucanases and proteases, which are targeted by pathogen proteins such as GIP1, EPI1, EPIC2B, and AVR2. These seven well-characterized inhibitors have different modes of action and many probably evolved from inactive enzymes themselves. Detailed studies of the structures, sequence variation, and mutated proteins uncovered molecular struggles between these enzymes and their inhibitors, resulting in positive selection for variant residues at the contact surface, where single residues determine the outcome of the interaction.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Opin Plant Biol

Publication Date





380 - 388


Enzyme Inhibitors, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Plants