R-loop stabilization represses antisense transcription at the Arabidopsis FLC locus.
Sun Q., Csorba T., Skourti-Stathaki K., Proudfoot NJ., Dean C.
Roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in gene expression are emerging, but regulation of the lncRNA itself is poorly understood. We have identified a homeodomain protein, AtNDX, that regulates COOLAIR, a set of antisense transcripts originating from the 3' end of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). AtNDX associates with single-stranded DNA rather than double-stranded DNA non-sequence-specifically in vitro, and localizes to a heterochromatic region in the COOLAIR promoter in vivo. Single-stranded DNA was detected in vivo as part of an RNA-DNA hybrid, or R-loop, that covers the COOLAIR promoter. R-loop stabilization mediated by AtNDX inhibits COOLAIR transcription, which in turn modifies FLC expression. Differential stabilization of R-loops could be a general mechanism influencing gene expression in many organisms.