Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in gene expression are emerging, but regulation of the lncRNA itself is poorly understood. We have identified a homeodomain protein, AtNDX, that regulates COOLAIR, a set of antisense transcripts originating from the 3' end of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). AtNDX associates with single-stranded DNA rather than double-stranded DNA non-sequence-specifically in vitro, and localizes to a heterochromatic region in the COOLAIR promoter in vivo. Single-stranded DNA was detected in vivo as part of an RNA-DNA hybrid, or R-loop, that covers the COOLAIR promoter. R-loop stabilization mediated by AtNDX inhibits COOLAIR transcription, which in turn modifies FLC expression. Differential stabilization of R-loops could be a general mechanism influencing gene expression in many organisms.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





619 - 621


Amino Acid Sequence, Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis Proteins, Chromatin, DNA, Plant, DNA, Single-Stranded, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Homeodomain Proteins, MADS Domain Proteins, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Binding, RNA, Antisense, RNA, Long Noncoding, RNA, Plant, Transcription Termination, Genetic, Transcription, Genetic