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Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nature12031

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nature

Publication Date

04/04/2013

Volume

496

Pages

57 - 63

Keywords

Adaptation, Physiological, Animals, Biological Evolution, Cestoda, Cestode Infections, Conserved Sequence, Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Genes, Helminth, Genes, Homeobox, Genome, Helminth, HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins, Humans, Hymenolepis, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Parasites, Proteome, Stem Cells, Taenia solium