The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate inhibits histone lysine demethylases.
Chowdhury R., Yeoh KK., Tian Y-M., Hillringhaus L., Bagg EA., Rose NR., Leung IKH., Li XS., Woon ECY., Yang M., McDonough MA., King ON., Clifton IJ., Klose RJ., Claridge TDW., Ratcliffe PJ., Schofield CJ., Kawamura A.
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for the R-form of 2HG varied from approximately 25 μM for the histone N(ɛ)-lysine demethylase JMJD2A to more than 5 mM for the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. The results indicate that candidate oncogenic pathways in IDH-associated malignancy should include those that are regulated by other 2OG oxygenases than HIF hydroxylases, in particular those involving the regulation of histone methylation.