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This chapter reviews the role of axon degeneration as a predictor of clinical outcome in a spectrum of neurological disorders. This chapter begins with methods to asses damaged axons. This includes amyloid precursor protein Immunocytochemistry and cerebrospinal fluid "Surrogates." Axonal degeneration and loss, together with their surrogate markers, have emerged as important measures of the extent of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). This is reflected in studies of conditions as diverse as head trauma, cerebral malaria, MS, viral infections, metabolic disease, and ischemic damage. This chapter also discusses the progress made in examining these measures not only in human diseases but also in animal models of disease, where a degree of precision in correlative studies can be reached that is as yet unmatched in human pathology. Axonal injury has been observed in various animal models of trauma, ischemia autoimmune diseases, viral infections, toxic injury, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, research using animal models of two neurological diseases, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS), are emphasized in particular. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original publication





Book title

Multiple Sclerosis as A Neuronal Disease

Publication Date



373 - 387