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Feedback control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease has great potential to improve efficacy, reduce side effects, and decrease the cost of treatment. In this, the timing and intensity of stimulation are titrated according to biomarkers that capture current clinical state. Stimulation may be at standard high frequency or intelligently patterned to directly modify specific pathological rhythms. The search for and validation of appropriate feedback signals are therefore crucial. Signals recorded from the DBS electrode currently appear to be the most promising source of feedback. In particular, beta-frequency band oscillations in the local field potential recorded at the stimulation target may capture variation in bradykinesia and rigidity across patients, but this remains to be confirmed within patients. Biomarkers that reliably reflect other impairments, such as tremor, also need to be established. Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann N Y Acad Sci

Publication Date





9 - 24


Brain, Deep Brain Stimulation, Dyskinesias, Dystonia, Electroencephalography, Feedback, Physiological, Humans, Hypokinesia, Muscle Rigidity, Parkinson Disease, Subthalamic Nucleus, Tremor