Visualisation and measurement of the calcium message in guard cells.
Fricker MD., Gilroy S., Read ND., Trewavas AJ.
We have applied several novel technologies to investigate the role of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]i in signal transduction in guard cells of Commelina communis L. Fluorescence ratio imaging and photometry together with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Indo-1 were used to directly visualise and measure dynamic spatial and temporal changes in [Ca2+]i in response to various exogenous stimuli. More subtle manipulation of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway was achieved through the use of photoactivateable, caged Ca2+ and caged inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) released directly into the cytoplasm of the guard cell after microinjection. In these experiments, changes in [Ca2+]i were simultaneously monitored with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fluo-3. Resting levels of [Ca2+]i (100-200 nM) increased in response to elevated [Ca2+]e, lowering [K+]e, application of the ionophore A-23187 or cytosolic release of either Ca2+ or InsP3 from their caged forms. Stomatal closure was triggered if [Ca2+]i increased above a threshold of about 600 nM. Abscisic acid (ABA) had little effect on [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells studied, being elevated in only a minority of cells investigated. However, stomatal closure occurred in all cases after ABA application. This suggests that ABA acts through both Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)-dependent pathways. The imaging data revealed a substantial heterogeneity in [Ca2+]i within the guard cell. Cytoplasmic regions, particularly near the nucleus, often showed marked elevations and sometimes oscillations. The origin and kinetics of the Ca2+ fluxes leading to the dynamic spatial patterns is discussed along with several new approaches directed towards identification of the source of the Ca2+. These methods include optical sectioning and 3-D reconstruction of both the endomembrane system and [Ca2+]i in living guard cells using confocal microscopy. Overall, our data is consistent with multiple sources for [Ca2+]i, including uptake across the plasma membrane and InsP3- or Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from internal stores.